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Detecting GMO

The purpose of analyzing samples for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is to identify and determine the amount of genetic elements or proteins common to GMOs and their derived products. 
Samples selected for GMO determination should be as representative as possible of the tested product in the batch from which the sample is taken. Since batches are rarely homogeneous, it is necessary to take a sufficient number of spot samples, mix them thoroughly and form an average sample. 

In Ukraine, the following methods of GMO analysis are used: 
I - method, which is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nucleic acid is extruded from the test sample, then by amplification in the polymerase chain reaction (PLR) determine the target DNA sequence to later determine the presence of GMO (qualitative or quantitative). 
The second method is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific proteins (ELISA). In this assay, an antibody binds to the substance under study; the known amount of readily detectable enzyme that binds to the antibody complex allows accurate measurements to be made. This method requires test systems. 
III - Express method of analyzing grain samples with test strips ("strips"). For each type of grain (soybeans, corn, rapeseed, etc.) there is a separate test strip for detection of specific proteins, such as CP-4EPSPS, Cry 1AB; Cry 1F; Cry 3Bb; Cry 34AB1; PAT/pat; sensitivity of strips is 0,1 %; each strip has an absorbent pad at the ends.

Step-by-step steps:

- Sampling (100 or 1000 grains);

- sample grinding
- Extraction of the sample with water or buffer solution

- Analyzing the aqueous extract with test strips.

For I and II methods of GMO research special equipment and laboratory are necessary, for II method - special test kits and elementary set of laboratory equipment (chemical glassware, distilled water).